international division of labour, international competitiveness, production and export specialization, production structure by levels of technology


The international division of labour is a factor and source for the formation of modern production structure, which generates a change in the international competitiveness of the national economies.

The dynamics of modern international trade is structurally decisive in the formation of trade flows and creates international specialization of production, which in turn implies a modern approach in analyzing the current international division of labour.

The production and export specialization of the Bulgarian economy has been developing over the past twenty years under the sign of two parallel processes - the transition to a market economy and integration into the EU - which lead to the creation of new production potential. There are some external factors and processes, objectively related to the process of globalization and its dynamic changes, that have an impact on the changes in the production and trade specialization of Bulgaria.

However, the influence of external factors cannot always change the dynamics and nature of internal structural changes that would increase the competitiveness of the national economy. Based on the above, the research conducted with funding from the National Fund for Scientific Research and administered by the Institute for Scientific Research, ISR, at D.A.Tsenov Academy of Economics on the topic: "The international division of labour and the place of the Bulgarian economy - trends and perspectives", served as a basis and stimulus for further development of the analysis made in this monograph.


Chapter one. Theoretical foundations of production specialization and production structure in the world 11

1.1. Conceptual apparatus for clarification of modern international specialization of production 11

1.2. State of production specialization according to the nature and trends in international trade 16

1.3. Interaction between the production economic structures and the profile of 24

1.4. Changes in demand and supply in relation to international trade 32

1.5. Impact of the changing patterns of global trade due to the division of labour and specialization of firms 34

Chapter two. Technological innovation and international trade as drivers of growth and production restructuring 39

2.1. Technological innovation and trade as a growth driver 39

2.2. Cross-border data flows and economic development 45

2.2.1. The amount of the Global Datasphere 45

2.2.2. The role of data in the production process 51

2.2.3. The role of data in global trade 54

2.2.4. Research and development in the field of digital platforms and artificial intelligence - a pledge for the future development of international specialization of production 57

2.3. Approaches and methods for classification of high-tech products 66

2.4. The role of international cooperation in the formation of modern international specialization of production 69

Chapter three. Specialization of production in the EU economy and Bulgarias place 77

3.1. Production structure and specialization of European economy 77

3.2. Technology challenges and the potential of the Bulgarian economy 84

3.3. Analysis of Bulgaria's exports for the period 20102020 95

3.4. Possibilities of improving the specialization of production

in Bulgaria 107

Conclusion 119

Appendices 121

References 124

JEL: F12; F43; F62
Pages: 1
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